No. 9 — November 15, 1983

This is our ninth issue. The publication is uncopyrighted and free, but is meant for active, participatory readers. Readers who want to stay on the mailing list must either write something for publication or send in money, etc. to help pay for expenses. (Thanks to those who have sent in items for publication and/or money for the expenses, and dire warnings to those who send neither: your names will be removed from the mailing list after this issue.) Editorial policy is to report both technical and cultural information which might be relevant to Japanese-English translators. I am trying here to paint a sort of panoramic picture of the tragicomic universe inhabited by Japanese-English translators, and nothing, serious or frivolous, which I or the readers think might be of interest will be excluded. If you know any professionals who are not on the mailing list, please share your issues with them, or have them drop me a line if they want to get on the mailing list.

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I am belatedly clearing out the dead wood from my mailing list. If there is an asterisk before your name on the envelope, that means either that you have not yet been heard from or that I am not sure whether you wish to continue to receive the newsletter. You must write to me indicating that you want to receive it. Otherwise I will have to drop your name from the mailing list after this issue. (See dire warning above.)

Those who need specific back issues should write me (enclosing a check sufficient to cover the postage) and specify which issues they want. If you wish a full set of all back issues, please send a generous donation.

Some copies of No. 8 had page 13 missing. If page 13 was missing from your copy, please let me know. I will send you the missing page. DLP

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Machine translation software will be marketed by CSK-Bravice, but it will be v. expensive. Fujitsu and KAIST will develop a machine translation system for translating Japanese into Korean. Inter Press, publisher of the blockbuster two-volume Inter Press 25-mango daijiten, is now coming out with another technical dictionary. Three patent dictionaries are described. The first issue of a monthly magazine for linguists and translators, LANGUAGE MONTHLY, was to be published in England in October. The predicted output of Japanese-language word processors has been revised upwards to 100,000 units. Newton has published a new edition of its lavishly printed book about Japanese-language word processors. Alexander Shkolnik reviews a Japanese-Russian polytechnical dictionary. Information about SWET (Society of Writers, Editors and Translators) has been received. Definitions of "mook" and "soft cream boy" are given. I give a list of new words encountered in my recent reading. The etymology of the word Datsun is revealed. This month's bonus is the first installment of another glossary from D.A. Fraser of London. This one is a glossary of words from chemical and allied fields. Finally, I ask readers to define a hitherto undocumented Japanese term about a generation of young Japanese called "dankai (no) sedai.' I have encountered the term recently in Japanese newspapers and magazines.

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In our last issue (No. 8, p. 11–12) we reported that Computer Services Corporation (CSK) and Bravice International had become affiliated through a stock acquisition. Since then it was announced that CSK will early next year put on sale a computerized translation system for automatically translating business documents from Japanese into English. Sales will be aimed chiefly at business enterprises, and the system will be available in two different versions: one for the VAX11/70 minicomputer (Digital Equipment Corporation, DEC), and the other for the IBM Multistation 5550 personal computer. In April, 1984 the company will begin sales of a similar system for translating English into Japanese.

CSK and Bravice are now engaged in final testing of the J-E software, which is said to have a basic dictionary of 40,000 words and 20,000 rules for linguistic analysis. It is claimed to be able to translate "business documents" automatically with an accuracy of at least 80% (85–92% is claimed at the present time). The developmental work will probably be completed by mid-November, and the system is scheduled to be marketed early in 1984. Additional application software for other technical fields such as chemistry will be developed in the future.

How fast does the system work? The minicomputer version will be able to translate 8,000 words an hour, and the personal-computer version 2,000 words an hour. I understand that this applies to "business" (i.e., nontechnical) documents, i.e. texts consisting of words contained in the 40,000-word dictionary. The system would apparently be unable to handle technical texts (the Inter Press dictionary alone contains 250,000 words, and I have seen another estimate that there are some 700,000 technical terms in use in Japanese).

The cost of the system will be expensive. The minicomputer version will cost about ¥10,000,000 (at a recent exchange rate $42,918), and the personal-computer version about ¥42,000,000 ($8,583). Since this is the first full-scale computerized translation system to come on the market, CSK says that at the beginning it will be priced so as to cover the development costs, but if the demand increases to the point where the systems can be sold on a large scale, it will be possible to lower the sales price considerably.

The CSK-Bravice computer translation system is based on a system originally developed by Weidner Communications Corporation (WCC), an American company located in Northbrook, Ill., for use with a DEC PDP11 minicomputer. Reportedly, Weidner has already perfected eight applications of it, such as for translating English into Spanish. But Weidner has been ailing financially, and in autumn, 1982, a controlling interest in it was purchased by Bravice International, which acquired 51% of its stocks. Bravice retained 26% of the stocks and ceded 25% to CSK. This entire deal was apparently financed by CSK, reportedly for a total sum exceeding ¥800,000,000 ($3,433,476). CSK then went on to acquire a 30% interest in Bravice, and Bravice and CSK, now closely affiliated, embarked jointly on the work of developing a J-E translation system based on the Weidner technology.

CSK has sent three IBM 5550 workstations to Weidner in Illinois so that the programs can be converted from the PDP11, while at the same time Bravice is converting the programs for use with the VAX minicomputer.

The storage unit will be a "megafloppy" device with a 20 megabyte capacity which has been developed by CSK. (Nikkei sangyō shimbun, October 19, 1983; Nikkan kōgyō shimbun, October 22, 1983)

The president of Bravice International is Mr. Takehiko Yamamoto, and its address, as was reported in our issue No. 3, is:

Bravice International Inc.
Sumitomo Ichigaya Building
2 Honmura-cho, Ichigaya
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo
Tel: (03) 235-0281

Computer Services Corporation is a well-known company listed in the Second Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. It has a total number of 3,421 employees, and its president is Mr. Isao Ohkawa. Its address is:

Computer Services Corporation
Nishi-Shinjuku 2-6-1
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo
Tel: (03) 344-1811

Weidner's address is:

Weidner Communications Corporation
500 Skokie Boulevard, Suite 270
Northbrook, Illinois 60062
Tel.: (312) 564-8122

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Takehiko Yamamoto, 50, the president of Bravice International, graduated from the Law Department of University of Tokyo in 1955. He took a job with Onoda Cement Co., Ltd. and was placed in charge of the company's South American consulting operations. In 1971 he left Onoda and founded his own independent company, Bravice International, which was intended to be a trade consulting firm between Japan and Brazil. Since translation proved to be a stumbling block in this business, he decided in 1975 to work on machine translation. In 1979 Bravice purchased a translation system from Weidner and began to engage in automated translation.

In 1982 Bravice acquired a 51% interest in Weidner, and in 1983 Computer Services Corporation bought a 30% interest in Bravice. Bravice has 80 employees, 20 of whom are foreigners of 13 different nationalities. Bravice is capitalized at ¥215,500,000 ($924,892 at a recent rate). During 1982 it had sales of ¥700,000,000 ($3,004,291). During 1979 its sales were ¥340,000,000 ($1,459,227), and Bravice has a very ambitious sales target of ¥3,900,000,000 ($16,738,197) for 1985. Research and development expenses amount to 17% of the company's sales. (Nikkei sangyō shimbun, October 28, 1983)

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Fujitsu Limited announced on October 31 that it and the Korean Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (KAIST) would jointly develop a computerized translation system for automatically translating Japanese into Korean. The joint development contract was recently signed in Seoul.

The system to be developed is to be based on a Japanese-English and English-Japanese machine translation system called ATLAS/I which Fujitsu is now testing. The target date for completion of the prototype machine is the first period of 1986.

The development work will be carried out by KAIST and Fanacom Korea, the Korean branch company of Fujitsu. The syntax analytical functions of ATLAS/1 will be utilized, computerized Japanese-Korean dictionaries of vocabulary and grammar will be developed, and the peripheral software needed for input/output and editing of texts will be created. A concrete development plan will be finalized by the end of March, 1984, and development work of a prototype system will be carried out during the 1½-year period beginning in April, 1984. This prototype system will be tested and improved, and the finished system will be completed during the first half of 1986.

The Korean side wishes to have the system commercialized at an early period, and it is expected that it will be possible for the Japanese-Korean machine translation system to be manufactured within a short time if the know-how and software already developed by Fujitsu concerning machine translation are utilized. Since advanced technology concerning machine translation will be transferred to Korea as a consequence of this joint development project, the Korean side will have a groundwork later on for independently developing its own systems such as for Korean-to-Japanese, English-to-Korean and Korean-to-English translation. (Nihon keizai shimbun, November 1, 1983)

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The Nippon Denki Seigyo Kiki Kogyokai (NECA, president Takao Tateishi, Higashi Shinbashi 2-7-6, Minato-ku, 431-1598) has recently published a small glossary of 160 unique words connected with programmable controllers (PC), which are the central components of factory automation and FMS systems. The words are defined and their English equivalents are given. An appendix lists the PC makers who belong to NECA. The glossary sells for ¥200. (Dempa Shimbun October 22, 1983)

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Inter Press, which in April published the gigantic two-volume "Inter Press Dictionary of Science and Engineering" (reviewed in No. 3, pp. 3–5), is now preparing another large two-volume dictionary aimed at J-E and E-J translators of technical manuals. The dictionary, entitled Kagaku gijutsu katsuyo daijiten will provide detailed examples illustrating the usage of important words and phrases in technical writing in both languages. Advertisements for the dictionary indicate that it is based on English manuals originating from the Bell Helicopter Co. and on Japanese translations of them made for more than a decade by Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd.

The dictionary is scheduled to go on sale in mid-November. One volume will be J-E, and the other will be E-J. The two volumes will have a total of 2,400 pages (less than the total of 3,815 pages of the previous dictionary). If ordered before the end of March, 1984 the dictionary will cost ¥50,000 (about $214 at a recent rate). After March the price will go up to ¥55,000 ($236).

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There are three patent dictionaries which might be of interest to Japanese translators.

First is Glossary of Japanese patent law terms by Thomas Wilds. This is a J-E and E-J glossary of some 900 terms which grew out of a card file maintained by Mr. Wilds. It was published in 1976 and has 77 pages. I think its cost ($25) is excessive for the number of terms it contains. Available from Thomas Wilds, l6D Weavers Hill, Greenwich, Conn. 06830.

The second is The English-Japanese dictionary of patent terms (Japanese title: Eiwa tokkyo yōgo jiten) This was edited by Yukisato Iida, a Japanese patent authority with many years of experience. The first edition was published in 1973, and the "latest revised and enlarged edition" (507 pages in all) was published in 1981. It contains more than 2,500 words. The publisher is the Hatsumei Kyōkai (Japan Institute of Invention and Innovation). This new edition costs ¥4,000 ($17.17 at a recent rate) in Japan and is sometimes available at Kinokuniya in San Francisco for $34.00. An appendix contains the texts of the Paris Convention and the Patent Cooperation Treaty in English and Japanese. There is a bibliography. Many of the entries have extended explanations, definitions, and quotations illustrating their usage. For example, the entry "drawing" has an explanation in English and in Japanese, and this is followed by a list of nearly 80 different types of drawings, in English and Japanese (from "axial sectional view" to "wiring diagram"). This whole list covers nearly three pages. The dictionary is English-to-Japanese only and, unluckily for us, has no such thing as a Japanese-to-English index. But the illustrative material can be extremely useful for a translator.

The third is a six-language dictionary called Rokkakokugo taiyaku Tokkyo yōgo jiten (Six-languages dictionary of industrial properties) compiled by Eikichi Ueki and published in 1979 by Inaho Shobo (Takadanobaba 1-16-11, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, telephone 03-209-7692). It contains 4,000 words, has 1,500 pages and costs ¥48,000 ($206 at a recent rate) in Japan. The six languages are English, German, French, Spanish, Russian and Japanese. The dictionary is in six different sections so that words can be looked up from any one of the six languages. This arrangement is convenient but takes up a large number of pages since the entire dictionary is repeated six times for every language. There is a one-page bibliography.

There still is a need for a handy Japanese-English patent dictionary containing several thousand undefined words, and one might be compiled without too much trouble on the basis of the three dictionaries listed above. Since Mr. Wilds has a head start on the rest of us, would he like to expand his glossary and transform it into a full-scale dictionary?

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Don Cyril Gorham recommends the following dictionaries:

"In the petroleum area I have found the following useful (though I am not a specialist in any sense of the word). SEKIYU EIWA JITEN English title "The Petroleum Dictionary," published Jan. 1979 by the Sekiyu Shunju Sha and compiled at the Nihon Enerugii Keizai Kenkyujo. It is essentially an 827-page E-J dictionary with explanations in Japanese but does include a J-E index (pp. 679–744). Somewhat encyclopedic in that it also contains major trade groups, firms, legal terminology used with petroleum, statistics, and a four-page Japanese and Western bibliography. Price ¥4,000.

"In the communications area: DENKI TSUSHIN HYOJUN YOGO JITEN, second edition, published Feb. 1972. Ohmu Sha printed it, and it was compiled by the Gijutsu Kyoku of the NTT, presumably a solid group of people in this area. There is both an English and a Japanese index; the words themselves are grouped into fourteen categories, such as circuit elements, communications networks, data transmission, propagation, etc. Some 4,400 terms considered basic are listed. I find it useful in my own work. ¥1,800.

"Re defense and military terms: KOKUBO YOGO JITEN published December 1980 by the Asagumo Shimbun-Sha, mouthpiece of the Self-Defence Forces. Compiled by the Boei Gakkai which was organized in 1973 and decided five years later such a tome was needed. 409 pages in length; has a combined English and Japanese index in a,i,u,e,o order. Basically a J-J dictionary but in almost all instances has the English and Russian equivalents. Three-page index of abbreviations in Western languages. Cost is ¥2,300. About 1,800 terms dealt with. One of the rather scarce references in this area that I am aware of."

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LANGUAGE MONTHLY is a new British publication "for linguists and translators" which is to be published by Praetorius Limited, a Nottingham-based company founded by Geoffrey Kingscott, a former translation company director, who will be the managing editor. Editor will be Veronica Lawson, a London translator and consultant, who has written widely on patents and machine translation. The first issue was scheduled to be published in October 1983.

The brochure shows what appears to be the cover of issue No. 1. On the cover is a picture of a young man (could that possibly be the managing editor masquerading as Praetorius?) wearing a powdered wig and an 18th-century jacket with billowing lace cuffs seated at his desk; this baroque translator is fingering the keyboard, not of a harpsichord, but of an IBM Displaywriter, and a dictionary lies open on his desk. Over the picture is the subtitle: "Translators move into the electronic age." The brochure states that LANGUAGE MONTHLY "is not a learned or academic journal... Instead, it is a news and information magazine, the first to cover the whole language scene... In the past linguists have frequently worked in separate compartments, with the working translator, for example, having little opportunity of knowing what is going on in the universities, or the language teacher with what is happening in industry... And, as the sociologists are constantly reminding us, we are moving into the post-industrial society, where information and communication will take over from production as the primary economic factors, a society in which linguists everywhere will have key role." I gather that now we translators can doff our powdered wigs and assume our seats in the high-tech cockpit. Yes, I am ready.

A 12-issue subscription to Language Monthly will cost £12.00 in the U.K. U.S. subscription costs were not mentioned.

The magazine's address is: Praetorius Limited, 30 Clarendon Street, Nottingham NG1 5HQ (telephone 0602 411087)

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The Japan Business Machinery Manufacturers' Association has revised upwards its prediction for the 1983 output of Japanese-language word processors. It had originally expected a total of 70,000 units to be shipped during the year, but it has now revised this number to 100,000 units. The value of these units has also been revised from ¥64,000,000,000 ($274,678,111 at a recent rate) to ¥75,000,000,000 ($321,888,412). This amounts to a 43% increase in the number of units but a 17% increase in the value. This disparity reflects the recent trend toward lower prices of WP systems.

The totals for 1982 were 33,000 units (¥36,000,000,000). Therefore, the 1983 totals will amount to a threefold growth in number of units and an increase of about 2.1 times in the value. The total output for the first seven months of 1983 amounted to 52,596 units, a 325% increase over the same period of 1982. The outlook for increases in deliveries of these products in the future continues to be overwhelmingly bullish. (Dempa shimbun, October 25, 1983)

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NEWTON, a Japanese science magazine published by Kyoikusha, has now published a new edition of its book about Japanese word processors, Waado purosessa no subete. The first edition of this beautifully printed color book was published in May, 1982 (see review in No. 1, p. 3). The new edition, which has 332 pages, reflects the advances in Japanese-language word-processors during the past year and a half. The book costs ¥2,000 ($8.58 at a recent rate) in Japan. This is still the best single source of information about how different types of Japanese-language word processors work, and this new, updated edition will be especially valuable. A valuable appendix (pp. 245–282) gives detailed information about the various models of Japanese-language word processors, and there is another appendix (pp. 283–294) which describes Japanese-language word-processing software for use with various types of computers.

Of interest to some will be a section on p. 242 which describes a Japanese-made bilingual Arabic and English word processor, a Japanese-made bilingual Korean and Japanese word processor, a Chinese word processor being developed in Australia, and a Japanese-made braille word processor which enables blind persons to create Japanese-language documents using kanji.

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Another publication which should be of interest to us is Journal of Japanese trade & industry, a bimonthly magazine published by Japan Economic Foundation, 11th Floor, Fukoku Seimei Bldg., 2-2, Uchisaiwai-cho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan. An annual subscription in the U.S.A. and Canada costs $44 including air mail postage. The July/August 1983 issue is the tenth issue and has a long article (actually the summarized translation of the first chapter of a book) by Ken'ichi Imai called "Japan's Industrial Society: Technical Innovation and Formation of a Network Society." There is also an article by David A. Takami about foreigners working in Japanese companies in Japan as seishain (regular full-time employees). The article quotes Martha Debs of Nissho Iwai:

"The number of foreigners conversant in Japanese is so small," laments Ms. Debs. When she attended the Inter-University Center for Japanese Language Studies a few years ago in Tokyo, a program designed for Ph.D. candidates, she was appalled by what she saw. "Even people at the highest level of education couldn't function in Japanese." (p. 14)

Alas, alas.

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[Scanned Image 1]

[Scanned Image 2]

[Scanned Image 3]

[Editor's Note: The dictionary reviewed here is available for $9.50 by mail order from Victor Kamkin Bookstore, Inc., 12224 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20852.]

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Don Cyril Gorham writes:

"In the Katakana area, I agree with you that it can sometimes be scary and quite difficult as well. Although there are a number of Kana and Katakana dictionaries on the market (mostly small), I myself have found the following to be a good, fairly comprehensive one.. Katakariago no Jiten (Rajio, Shimbun, Terebi, Shiken) Compiled by Toshio Muraishi, edited by Koichi Miyazaki. Published Feb. 1981 by Ikeda Shoten. 536 PP. The publication is particularly good in that it specifies the Wasei Eigo, which can be interesting."

I (DLP) also saw the following advertisement for a dictionary of katakana words (I am putting the ad in sideways to save space):

[Scanned Image 4]

Speaking of katakana words, I found the following in an article in the December, 1983 issue of Kogyo eigo (p. 68–69):


これは、英語ではallergy, urethane, uranium, titanium, ether, potassium, cylinder, category, energy, energeticとなる。たとえスペルが似たようなものであっても発音は全然違っている。

さらにまぎらわしいのが、英語から来ているが、日本語化された言葉である。アパートはapartment houseの、デパートはdepartment storeの略であることはすぐわかる。それでは、次の言葉に対応する英語は何であろうか。



blanket, accelerator, steering wheel, fuse, sewing machine, amplifier, intercollegiate, extract, whisky and soda, tea with whisky, stapler, guineapig, carries, night game



  1. クレーン、重量のものを揚げる機械
  2. 給水管、サイフォン、コック


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This is the name of a group of Japan-based people engaged mainly in these three professions, as well as in teaching, research, rewriting, design and production, copywriting, and other areas related to the written English word in Japan. It has about 230 members, including about 80 translators.

SWET began with an informal gathering held in Tokyo in November 1980. More than a hundred people attended the meeting, and it was decided to form a continuing association and issue a newsletter.

Meetings and workshops are held approximately every other month. Publication of the newsletter is timed to announce coming meetings and to report on preceding ones. The newsletter also provides information of interest to members, including classified ads and news of SWET projects such as a glossary exchange, compilation of a style sheet for rornanized Japanese and a bilingual glossary of publishing terms, and a book exchange. A directory of members is revised and published annually.

At the present time the organization is effectively run by a steering committee of 10–20 members led by Lynne R. Riggs, Susie Schmidt and Nina Raj at University of Tokyo Press, Fred Uleman (Japan Research, Inc.) and others.

The most recent issues of the newsletter I saw were those published in May and December 1983. The May issue had, among other things, an introductory article aimed at Japan residents who are interested in getting started with word processing. The December issue contained a report of a Japanese-English Translation Workshop given by translator Mori Toru to 35 SWET members on September 10. (See below.)

SWET membership is open to professional writers, editors and translators as well as to anyone interested in these fields. Membership is ¥3,000 per year (Japan) or $15.00 (overseas). Members receive the newsletter and the annual directory and are invited to attend the meetings and workshops.

Persons in the U.S. or other countries may join by writing to Ruth Stevens, 201 E. 87th Street (#23E), New York, N.Y. 10028. The address in Japan is:

SWET (Society of Writers, Editors, and Translators)
P.O. Box 8, Komae Yubinkyoku
Komae-shi, Tokyo 201 JAPAN

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According to the December, 1983 issue of the SWET Newsletter, at the Japanese-English Translation Workshop, Mori Toru advised translators to edit the original Japanese manuscript before translating it, then to reinterpret the message. This process may include the following: "scuttling rhetorical terms that sound quaint or anachronistic in English; replacing passive with active voice; breaking long, convoluted sentences into shorter, more manageable units; using simple, direct sentences to replace circumlocutions; eliminating pompous, self-serving rhetoric; choosing words that convey the nuances of the original." A final word of advice is "Specialize." Mori says that it is "impossible to be an expert in all areas, translating an economic report one day, a medical journal the next and a computer manual the third." (p. 6)

At the workshop Mori presented the following list of currently popular mistranslations along with his own recommendations:

courtesy T. Mori

Japanese Usual translation Suggested Translation
高齢化社会 aging society aging population
生活環境 living environment community facilities
経済社会 economic society the economy
中期国債 medium-term government bonds Treasury notes
経済基盤 management base financial position
経済環境 management environment market condition
加工産業 the processing industry fabricating (and assembling) industry
春闘 spring labor offensive spring round of wage negotiations

Comments, anyone?

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Have you, like me and so many, many others, been wondering what that mysterious word "mook" (in Japanese written phonetically mukku means? At last, everything is perfectly clear, thanks to the following lucid definition from the Nikkei high-tech dictionary (p. 306–307):


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Here is a list of words I (DLP) have gleaned from my recent reading. I'm giving only their English equivalents, but detailed definitions are available for some of the words, and in most cases I can supply bibliographic citations for my sources if anyone wants to know more about them.

相手先商標製品 original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
バリ flash
分域 domain
分布帰還型レーザー distributed feedback (DFB)
電荷結合素子 laser charge coupled devices (CCD)
動熱(動力炉・核熱料開発事業団) Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation
エンプラ(エンジニアリング・プラスチック) engineering plastic
富栄養化 eutrophication
外為(がいため)市場 foreign exchange market
学際 interdisciplinary
ガン破壊因子 cancer breaking factor (CBF)
ガリウムひ素(ガリひ素) gallium arsenide (GaAs)
白血球増殖因子 colony stimulating factor (CSF)
ヒト成長ホルモン human growth hormone
インパネ instrument panel
イオン注入 ion implantation
イオン注入装置 ion implantor
イオン輸送担体 ionophore
化学気相蒸着法 chemical vaporphase deposition (CVD)
可変濃度フィルタ variable density filter
開口数 numerical aperture (NA)
改良気相化学反応法 modified chemical vapor-phase deposition (MCVD)
形状記憶効果 shape memory effect (SME)
貴腐ワイン pourriture noble (?)
気相化学反応法 chemical vapor-phase deposition (CVD)
気相軸付け法 vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD)
混載業者 forwarder
固定化酸素 immobilized enzyme
後天性免疫不全症候群 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
銅矢板 sheet pile
口コミ word-of-mouth communication
マクロファージ遊走阻止因子 macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)
マンガン団塊 manganese nodule
慢性骨髄性白血病 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
マテハン・ロボット material handling robot
ムラサキウマゴヤシ alfalfa hydrothermal seabeds
熱水鉱床 hydrothermal seabeds
ノロ(鉱さい) slag
酸化還元電位 redox potential
相補性金属酸化膜半導体 complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
組織変態相境界 morphotropic phase boundary (MPB)
外付けCVD法 outside vapor-phase oxidation (OVPO)
スパッタリング sputtering
縮小投景露光装置 stepper
種よう壊死因子 tumor necrosis factor (TNP)
店頭市場 over-the-counter (OTC) market
浮船渠(うきドック) floating dock
内付けCVD法 inside vapor-phase oxidation (IVPO)
ゼネコン general contractor

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Rather belatedly I received the following definitions from Don Cyril Gorham (communicated dated October 3 but received November 4);

Nekura - Presumably a reference to the Nekura-zoku. Defined as being the opposite of Hyokin-zoku, apparently a reference to a very popular TV program. Meaning; a straightman, a taciturn/reticent type of person. Perhaps the "Sad Sack" or straight man in a comedy routine.

Dasai (The next, worse characterization is Dase-e) Meaning: Country bumpkin, boorish, uncouth person. The very opposite of a guy with a good deal on the ball. (Where on earth do you dig these items up, anyway?)

To reply to the last question, I really didn't "dig them up," but found them staring at me, many times, in articles in the best Japanese newspapers. I have seen some of these words (such as neaka even in newspaper headlines and editorials. If a word is important enough to be used in a newspaper headline or editorial, I think that any good translator ought, as a matter of course, to find out what it means. Who knows? Maybe six months from now it will appear in a job.

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Now it's time to get really technical. Here is a definition of the term "soft cream boy" from the staid and sedate Nihon keizai shimbun (October 24, 1983, evening edition);

ほんと? OL用語集



学生援護会が現在発売中の「LOOKING GOOD」カレンダーなどはさしずめ、ソフトクリームボーイの集大成かもしれない。水着姿などのハンサムな大学生がにっこりほほえみかける。購買層は一六ー二六歳くらいのヤングギャルだが、「二十歳過ぎのOLたちにも人気が高い」(担当者の話)


OL stands for "Office Lady," meaning a female office worker (see No. 4, p. 11). Soft cream is a kind of soft ice cream that is dispensed out of a machine and served in a cone. I haven't seen it in the U.S.

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Lucile S. Davison of Woodbury, Conn. writes the following (October 24) about the mineral name glossary in No. 8 which was supplied by Christopher S. Lotuaco:

This year, nearly retired as you know from my translation service advertisement, I have received little material for translation in any language, so I found enough time on my hands to check the minerals glossary in your eighth newsletter against my dictionaries in order to ascertain what ones I should copy into my dictionaries (I write in dictionaries). I could find all except four of the Japanese terms. Rinkeiseki and shakudoseki were not in my dictionaries, which do however give rinsekiei for tridymite and sekidōkō for cuprite. In my dictionaries hotaruishi is fluorspar or fluorite, and kasumiishi is nepheline. However when the latter is read instead arareishi, my dictionaries define the term as aragonite. For cryolite I find the Japanese term hyōshōseki. My experience is nowhere as extensive as yours, but I decided to alert you to the possibility that you might want to check these four terms. Sometimes we mortals err. Ten wa tada isshin de aru.

I agree with Alexander Shkolnik that Soviet English-Russian dictionaries are excellent, so far as my experience extends, and that translation is easier the more closely the subject matter matches my technical background.

In another communication, Ms. Davison writes again (November 4)

After writing to you on 24 October about the minerals glossary I noticed that the ideographs for kasumiishi and arareishi are actually different, so there is no ambiguity in the Japanese.

When my eyes were less tired and I used my hand lens I noticed the difference; it is not merely a matter of the reading for one and the same ideograph. There is an error in Lotuaco's glossary.

I find:

kasumiishi 霞石 nepheline
arareishi 霰石 aragonite

I am sure that Mr. Lotuaco, the compiler of the glossary in question, will be interested in Ms. Davison's comments. By the way, Ms. Davison does not specify what J-E dictionaries she uses for minerals and geology. My library is sadly lacking in that area. Could she supply us with an annotated list of the J-E geology dictionaries she uses?

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Hisashi Kubota of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, writes (October 27) the following about the ATA convention which he attended:

I returned from the annual ATA convention to find your October issue waiting for me. After seeing your request in this newsletter, I may be able to supply what little information there is to report.

First of all, except for the 1982 convention which was held in Washington where a large number of Japanese translators operate, none of the previous conventions has been successful in attracting any sizable number of Japanese to English translators. Because the meeting this year was to be held in Atlanta, not much of a showing was expected, and very little preparation was made. I was in fact surprised to see a session included on the agenda. As it turned out, quite a few people showed up of which a good number came from the immediate area.

We held an informal session of a rather unrehearsed nature. One of the items discussed was the possibility of establishing an accreditation program for Japanese-English translations. This is something I wish you would consider giving us an input.

Since next year's convention will be in New York, we are planning to hold at least 2 sessions then in anticipation of a much greater turnout.

I have been a member of ATA for well over 10 years, but I have been truly surprised by the large number of translators who have entered the field recently. Perhaps they have been there all along, but I was not aware of it. In any event, there is a need for some system of standardization and, perhaps more important, interchange of information between translators.


I am reprinting the following from the December, 1983 issue of the SWET Newsletter:

FULL-TIME POSITION FOR TECHNICAL TRANSLATOR open at Applied Materials Japan. Anyone interested should promptly send resume and other information to:

Mr. Earl Hartman Applied Materials Japan
Dai-Ichi Seimei Bldg.
2-7-1 Nishi-Shinjuku
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160

Applied Materials Japan markets and services semiconductor fabrication equipment from its parent company, California-based Applied Materials Inc. Its customer list includes all of the major Japanese semiconductor manufacturers.

Because Applied Materials Japan is an international company, smooth communication between Japan and the United States is essential. And by the very nature of the semiconductor field, much of the translation work that needs to be done is highly technical. A substantial portion of the work is translating technical manuals and other documentation from English into Japanese. The person selected will also be expected to be able to translate office communications from Japanese into English as well as to do consecutive interpretation at meetings.

Applied Materials Japan already has a number of candidates under consideration. If you are interested in this opportunity, write today. If you think you might be interested but want to know more, write for information. But do it quickly.-:

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Have you ever wondered where Nissan got the name Datsun for its cars?

Is the word English? Is it Japanese? According to the Economist the first car produced by the Nissan company was called DAT, after the initials of its three financial backers, whose names were Den, Aoyama and Takemake [sic). "A sporty little two-seater launched later was to have been given the English diminutive Datson (ie, 'son of DAT'). But 'son' sounded like the Japanese word for 'loss-maker'. So the ending was changed to 'sun' because of its more favourable connotations." (Economist, October 29, 1983, p.89)

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The Ministry of Finance's Committee.for the Study of Economic Structural Change and Policy entitled its report "A Dissertation on Softnomics," indicating its emphasis on the information industry in general, and on software and services in particular. The report states:

"The new era is a continuation of industrialization and might be called 'the era of informationization.'

"The major direction of culture in the future, at least in the advanced economies, is not 'quantitative expansion' but is rather the 'raising of quality.' The technology that will be key is information technology. With the development of the semiconductor there has been an astonishing advance in only 30 years in the technology of information management. It has permeated all industries and even family living standards and brought about a major revolution. This trend can be called 'informationization.

"In terms of industry this revolution has two especially striking aspects: 'the high development of basic elements' and 'systemization.'"

(Quoted in "Japanese Technology Today," an advertisement placed by the Japan Society in Scientific American, November 83, p. 342.)

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The following is the first part of a glossary of terms on chemistry and allied fields contributed by D.A. Fraser, 22 Gresley Road, London, N19 3JZ. (See Nos. 4 and 5 for his glossary of medical and pharmacological terms.) He writes (October 25) that this glossary is "the result of about 16 years experience in translating this material. All these terms were added by me to the Ministry of Education chemical dictionary. I think they are all fairly authentic but would be glad of corrections. I have added characters only where this is essential for clarity but can supply them to enquirers if there is any interest. Please regard this as a practical rather than an academic translator's contribution. You will no doubt guess that my ear is little attuned to spoken Japanese (I have never been to Japan and am rather in the position of your Japanese-Russian translator); hence some of my transliterations may cause hoots to the initiated, but they serve my purposes."

I (DLP) have the following comments, which are almost the same as the ones I made about the first glossary (see No. 4, p. 12):

(1) Some of the terms do appear, after all, in the Ministry of Education chemical dictionary (I am referring here to Japanese Scientific Terms, Chemistry, revised and enlarged edition, compiled by Ministry of Education, published by the Chemical Society of Japan, 1974). See dattyaku, haiisi, hunmatsu, hunzai, hutoeki, ion-kokanmaku, isen, keikabutu. Some others can be found in other dictionaries.

(2) Others have been given mistaken readings. For example, gabangan surely must be kawara bangan. One of the terms under hangan (the one meaning slate) is properly read bangan. Kado zyotai ought, I think, to be read kato zyotai ("transient state" in the 1974 edition). Kyosen (ground stopper) is definitely tomosen

(3) In most cases I can guess at the kanji forms, but there, are some which are baffling. What, for instance, isawa kizu defined as "air bubble'? Isn't kihoo "bubble"? As for gozai ("flux"), I thought that flux was yuzai.

The remaining parts of the glossary will appear in coming issues. Your comments and/or corrections are welcome.


Aizoddo sikan Izod (impact) test
Abiseru "Avicell" (trade name)
aen basu zinc bath
aen yaki sherardizing (galvanisation)
a-hō ammonia method (for obtaining soda)
amime-kan sasu nōdo crosslink density
aminorisisu aminolysis
aminotai tisso amino nitrogen
anperaito cannel coal
aogawa raw hide
era-ni preboiling
aranuri priming, ground coat
ara siage stripping
ararudaito "Araldite" (trade name for organic adhesive)
aresurin allethrin (insecticide)
arubaito-siki sōsyō albite twin crystal
arokuroru "Aroclor" (polychlorinated polyphenyl trade name)
aryūsan zyōsyaeki sulphite liquor
asetiru-ki teni kōso transacetylase
assai crushing
asufaruto-kami tarred paper
atogasu gas mixture after explosion
atomuroi shori case-hardening (cementing) with atomic hydrogen
atoseizu after-sizing
atukessyō sayō piezocrystallisation
aturyoku rokaki filter press
aturyoku tanku supply tank
awe kizu air bubble
awaseitagami multilayer cardboard
A-zyōtai A-stage (plastics man.)
azuru karyū azurophile granules
bagu hausu bag dust collector, dust-collecting chamber
bannō tōekiki universal projector
bamidotion vamidothion (ag.chem.)
bakumei gasu detonating gas
bakuyaku koritu explosive efficiency factor
baratuki dispersion (e.g. of graph curve)
bemaito (be-mu ishi) boebmite or böhmite
bari flash (plastics man.)
benreto Benlate (fungicide)
biniru-reza Vinylon (artificial leather based on PVC)
biryūzai microgranules (ag.chem.)
bōkabizai fungicide
bōseizai rust preventive
bōkinzai bactericide
bōsitu sotobako waterproofed leather
bōshokuzai anticorrosive additive
budomari yield rate, extraction rate (歩留り)
Buan-si eki Bouin's solution (or fluid)
bōyū swelling (of a colloidal system)
bunkaibōsizai antidegradation agent
bunkai daisya catabolism
bunri sagyō tani separation working unit (SWU - uranium enrichment)
bunkaku enshin graduated centrifugation
bunritanku separating or settling tank
bunryū (分粒) sorting, classification
bunryū siken granulometric test (analysis)
bunryūtō (分留塔) fractionating column
bunsanbai dispersion medium
bunsanzai disperser
burassyingu "blushing" (specialized term in painting)
bunsi zyōhatunetu latent heat of evaporation
bunsyukuki fractionating column
burideingu "bleeding" (plastics man.)
buro- hi blow up ratio
dairatansi dilatancy
daihorutan Daifolatan (fungicide)
dainasu renga Dinas brick
daizyesuta autoclave
dami karamu dummy column (chromatography)
dai sueru die swell
dakkai decalcification, ash removal
dakuron Dacron (fibre)
dannetu-zai heat insulator
dankō ore briquette
danseitai elastomer
dassyō denitrification
dattan decarbonization
datuenkasuiso dehydrochlorination
dattyaku desorption
dattitu denitrification
deiratometori dilatometry
dausamu Dowtherm (heat transfer medium)
datutansan decarboxylation
da-zuban Dursban (ag. chem.)
deisupo-zaru hosiki disposable system
dendōtai conduction band
denryō tekitei coulometric titration
derurin Deirin (acetal resin)
derami delamination (?)
dokuritu kihō closed cells (plastic man.)
dōran covellite
dōranko tobernite
doro-daun rawdown (plastics man.)
Ebaru EvalR (ethyl-vinyl alcohol copolymer)
ekian liquid ammonia
ekinetu thermolabile
eikyū henkei permanent deformation
eikyū zyōtai permanent state
eisuiseki anatase octahedrite
eiyō kyōka vitaminization of foods
ekihi liquid manure
ema-ru Emal (detergent trademark)
ekizai liquid (ag.chetn.)
enbai light ashes
enbunkei salinometer
engai smoke pollution
enka-karusiumu kagōhō calcium chloride process
enmusitu aerosol
ensituhō chamber process (man. of sulphuric acid)
enseki sekken grained soap
ensin te-pu flat yarn
enso tyūnyūki chlorinator
entarupi enthalpy
entō sugar of lead, lead diacetate
entinkan precipition tube
fedeome-ta fadometer
fūdei putty
fūzi bako hermetically sealed vessel
gabangan roofing slate
gaisōhō extrapolation
Gaisureru-kan Geissler tube
gantitan zitekkō ilmenite
ganhyōsyō cryohydrate
ganpisi rice paper (?)
gansekimin slag cotton
gansiritu resinousness
gan'yu ketugan oil shale
gararitto galolith (casein plastic)
garasu bi-zu glass beads
garasugami sandpaper
garasu teniten glass transition temperature
garasu u-ru glass wool
garena galena, galenite
gasu kōonkei gas pyrometer
gasudame gas tank, gasometer
gasu senzyōki scrubber
geneki base (in dyeing) or concentrate
genpi base fertilizer
genryōtan coking coal
gensisin atomic core
gentai effective ingredient
getta gas absorber, getter
gienki pseudobase
Giya- o-bun Geer oven
gisan (擬酸) pseudoacid
ginrō silver solder
gomuzai ingredient of rubber mixture
goryūtō secondary fractionating column
gomuseki gummite
gomuyō gasorin gasoline solvent for rubber
gomuyōzai rubber diluent
guraimu Glyme (glycol dimethyl ether)
goseitō reaction column
gōzai flux

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CORRECTION; Gendai yoogo jiten (No. 8, p. 18) should be Gendai yoogo no kiso chishiki published by Jiyuu Kokumin Sha. The 1982 edition, according to Hiroaki Sato of New York (October 25), is 1264 pages long and costs ¥1,900. Current slang and other words appear in the section entitled Wakamono yoogo. Also recommended highly by Don Cyril Gorham.

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Let me know if any of you turn up information which might be of interest to professionals working in the field, and I will incorporate it in another issue. Keep those tidbits coming in. Continue to address editorial correspondence to me. Readers in Japan will receive their copies from the Japan distributor. November 15, 1983

Donald L. Philippi
715 Tenth Ave.
San Francisco, CA 94118
(415) 752-7735

Distributor for Japan:
John D. Lamb,
Chumaru Danchi 2-913,
Chumarucho 1-1, Kita-ku,
Nagoya 462 JAPAN

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