Waste Input-Output (WIO) Table
What is WIO?
Any economic activity generates waste of some sort.
The WIO table is an extended Input-Output (IO) table that represents the interdependence
between the flow of goods and the flow of wastes. The following figure
shows a prototype of WIO table, which consists of five production sectors
(mining, energy, materials, parts, and product), three waste treatment sectors
(separation and shredding, incineration, and landfill), and six waste types
(waste containers, discarded appliances, metal scraps, dust, sludge, and ash).
In the figure, Xij indicates the flow of goods, while Wij
indicates the flow of wastes. The activity of the waste treatment sectors
is to transform waste feedstock into different types of waste. The flow in the
"waste times waste treatment '' block represents this transformation..
WIO as an accounting system
From the point of view of
accounting system, WIO can be seen as a variant of NAMEA. A distinguishing
feature of WIO consists in its detailed description of waste stream and waste
management. Furthermore, we have also developed an accompanying analytical model
called WIO model that can be used as a hybrid LCA tool of waste management. For
details of the WIO model, see below.
WIO adopted as a format for an official statistic of Japan
WIO has been adopted as the format for recording the flow of waste among production-, consumption-, and waste management sectors, involving generation, treatment, recycling, and final disposal, in the Input-Output Tables for Analysis of Environmental Fields (E-IO), an official statistic of Japan, the preparation of which was approved by the cabinet in March 2009. E-IO has henceforth being developed under the initiative of Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in cooperation with Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).
Download and use WIO Table
the "Readme" sheet before using the WIO tables.
WIO and LCA
The waste input-output (WIO) is a hybrid methodology of LCA that is capable
of taking into account all the phases of life-cycle, production, use, and End of
Life (EoL). Exclusion of the EoL phase used to be mentioned as a limitation of
IO Analysis (IOA) for LCA (while the conventional IOA does not cover the use
phase as well, its incorporation is rather straightforward). It, however, does
not apply to the WIO because of its explicit consideration of the flow of waste
and waste management activities including waste recycling. The WIO corresponds
to LCA based hybrid analysis, where the technology matrix of a product system in
LCA (in particular the foreground processes that refer to waste management and
recycling) is fully integrated with technical coefficients matrix of an economy
(the background processes that refer to the traditional flow of goods and
services) in IOA..
Nakamura, Shinichiro, and Keisuke Nansai. "Input-Output and Hybrid LCA." Special Types of Life Cycle Assessment. Springer Netherlands, 2016. 219-291 ISBN: 978-94-017-7608-0 (Print) 978-94-017-7610-3 (Online)
Makiko Tsukui, Shigemi Kagawa, andYasushi Kondo;
Measuring the waste footprint of cities in Japan: an interregional waste input-output analysis.
Journal of Economic Structures, 2015
Meng-I. Liao, Pi-cheng Chen, Hwong-wen Ma, Shinichiro Nakamura;
Identification of the driving force of waste generation using a high-resolution waste
Journal of Cleaner Production, 94, 294-303, 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.02.002
Manfred Lenzen and Christian John Reynolds:
A Supply-Use Approach to Waste Input-Output Analysis,
Journal of Industrial Ecology
Volume 18, Issue 2, pages 212-226, April 2014,
Extension of WIO within the supply and use framework.
- Kenichi NAKAJIMA, Keisuke NANSAI, Kazuyo MATSUBAE, Yasushi KONDO, Shigemi
KAGAWA, Rokuta INABA, Shinichiro NAKAMURA, and Tetsuya NAGASAKA, gIdentifying
the Substance Flow of Metals Embedded in Japanese International Trade by
Use of WIO-MFA Model,h ISIJ International, Vol. 51, No. 11, 1934?1939,
- S Nakamura, K Nakajima, Y Yoshizawa, K Matsubae-Yokoyama, T Nagasaka: Material
Flow Analysis of Polyvinyl Chloride in Japan based on the WIO-MFA Model,
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Special issue on Applications of Material
(5), 706-717, 2009
Chen Lin, Hybrid
Input-output Analysis of Wastewater Treatment and Environmental Impacts: A
Case Study for the Tokyo Metropolis. Ecological Economics 68(7): 2096-2105,
extension of WIO to waste water and its treatment. A WIO
(Waste Water IO) is proposed.
S. Nakamura and Y. Kondo:
Waste Input-Output Analysis: Concepts and Application to Industrial Ecology,
S Nakamura, S Murakami, K Nakajima, T Nagasaka: Hybrid input-output approach
to metal production and its application to the introduction of lead-free
solders, Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (10) 3843-3848 (2008
S Kagawa, S Nakamura, H Inamura, and M Yamada: Measuring spatial
repercussion effects of regional waste management, Resources, Conservation
and Recycling 51 (2007) 141–174
TAKASE, Koji, Yasushi KONDO, and Ayu WASHIZU, "An Analysis
of Sustainable Consumption by the Waste Input-Output Model," Journal of
Industrial Ecology, Vol. 9, No. 1-2 (Winter/Spring 2005) pp.201-219
The first application of WIO to issues of sustainable
S. Nakamura and K. Nakajima: Waste Input-Output Material
Flow Analysis of Metals in the Japanese Economy, Materials Transactions
46-12, 2550-2553, 2005.
This paper develops a theoretical model of material flow analysis (MFA)
within the framework of the Waste Input-Output model (WIO). Application to
the Japanese IO data indicates that the model can provide accurate estimates
of the weight as well as the composition of metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Al)
used in a passenger car. The model is also used to estimate the major final
use categories (household consumption, public consumption, capital
investment, inventory investment, and export) of metals.
Y. Kondo and S. Nakamura: Evaluating Alternative Life-Cycle
Strategies for Electrical Appliances by the Waste Input-Output Model,
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 9 (4), 236-246, 2004.
In April 2001, a new law on the recycling of end of use electrical home
appliances (EL-EHA) was put into effect in Japan. Under the law, the
manufacturers and importers of four types of EHA (TV, air-conditioner,
refrigerator, and washing machine) are obliged to re-commercialize up to 60%
of the components of EL-EHA. Effects of this law on the emission of carbon
dioxide and the demand for landfill consumption were evaluated by use of the
WIO model. It was found that the intensive recycling prescribed by the law
is effective in reducing these loading factors, and that the result is
robust to wide ranging variations in transport distances.
S. Nakamura and Y. Kondo: A
waste input–output life-cycle cost analysis of the recycling of end-of-life
electrical home appliances, Ecological Economics, in press.
This paper presents the cost- and price counterpart of WIO, and applies it
to a LCC of alternative strategies for EL-EHA.
- S. Nakamura and Y. Kondo: Input Output Analysis of Waste Management, Journal of Industrial Ecology Vol. 6, No.1, 2002, pp.39-64. This paper shows the theoretical structure of the WIO in its relationships
to the conventional environmental IO model, describes the structure of WIO
by use of an aggregated real WIO table for Japan, and shows LCA results of
alternative waste management scenarios with regard to concentrated treatment
and sorting of waste.
- Input-Output Analysis of Waste Cycles EcoDesign 99,
This paper presented the Waste Input-Output (WIO) Model
for the first time. The model was implemented for a municipality in
Hokkaido, Japan, and used for evaluating alternative waste treatment options
such as incineration, RDF, and landfilling.
Abstract Any production activity including recycling of
waste materials and consumption emits waste. This paper presents an
accounting framework describing the interdependence between the flow of
goods and waste among different sectors of the economy, and derives a
linear input-output model from it that can be used for analyzing the
relationships among environmental loads, technology/institutions, and
The accounting framework is used to analyze the MSW flow
of a city in Hokkaido with an extensive waste management policy. The
input-output model is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the policy
with respect to the requirements for landfill capacity and energy.